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Detail of top of head: AIC_.E31636.TIF


Egyptian, Probably from Thebes

Mummy Case of Paankhenamun, Third Intermediate Period, Dynasty 22 (c. 945 - 715 B.C.)

Cartonnage mummy case with mummy inside
h.: 67 in (170.2 cm); w.: 17 in. (43.2 cm); d.: 12-1/2 in. (31.7 cm)
Cartonnage (gum, linen and papyrus), gold leaf and pigment on a metal mount

The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA
No. 1910.238
The Art Institute of Chicago, William Moses Willner Fund

The hieroglyphic text above Horus reads: A royal offering of Osiris, presider over the West, the great god, lord of Abydos, Wennofer, ruler of Eternity. Utterance by Horus, the son of Osiris, the great god, lord of the sky; may he give a mortuary offering of food and viands, oxen and geese, incense, clothing and every good and true thing for Osiris, the doorkeeper of the estate of Amun, Paankhenamun, deceased, son of Ainka, the doorkeeper of the estate of Amun, deceased, son of Ankhefenkhonsu. Paankhenamun means "the one who lives for Amun". Khamaat means "The one who arises in Truth". 'Ankhefenkhonsu means 'He who lives for Khonsu'. Other identifying hieroglyphs elsewhere on case.

Excellent condition. Areas with decoration have been varnished and have yellowed due to aging. Vertical crack center right side (8-1/2 in.).

Footboard reattached in 1994.


Anthropoid coffin made for Paankhenamun, a doorkeeper of the estate of Amun in Thebes. The case is decorated with a variety of images associated with rebirth. The central scene depicts the presentation of the deceased by the falcon-headed deity Horus to Osiris, main deity of the afterlife.

Decoration on the mummy case:

1. Top register (head to middle of case).
(neck area): Maat with a phoenix bird.
"Broad collars": layers of floral necklaces.
Beetle with hawk head below the sun disk; wings of Nut.
Under beetle: Shen: hieroglyph for "eternity."
2. Middle top register: Scene of Paankhenamum with the gods.
Proper left: Paankhenamum with a cone of scented fat on his wig, is led into the presence of the gods.
Next to Paankhenamum: The hawk-headed god, Horus, Son of Osiris.
Center figure holding staff: The god Osiris.
Next to Osiris: Isis, the sister of Osiris.
Proper far right: Nephthys, sister of Osiris.
Center: The Four Sons of Horus.
3. Middle lower register. The geographic symbol of the city of Abydos.
Proper left: Winged deity, Hathor.
Proper right: Winged deity, Maat.
Rams on a standard.
Under left ram: A (mummy/tekenu ?) bundle on a standard.
Under right ram: Double plumed headdress.
4. Bottom Register.
Center: Djed pillar.
Facing pillar: Falcon gods, "The Behdite, Lord of Heaven."
Under wings: Eyes of Horus.
5. Foot register.
Center: Winged scarab.
Eyes of Horus.
Above beetle: Shen: hieroglyph for "eternity."
Above wings: Demons who live in the underworld.
6. The back of the coffin: single large djed pillar. On either side, below its elbows: hieroglyphs for "The West."

The coffin belonged to a man named Paankhenamun, whose name translates as "He Lives for Amun" Paankhenamun was the doorkeeper of the temple of the god Amun, a position he inherited from his father. X-rays reveal that he was approximately 5' 6" tall, and died in middle age. Cartonnage cases were popular at the time that Paankhenamun was buried. After mummification, the wrapped body was inserted into the case through the back. The back was then laced up, a footboard was added, and the case was painted. Cartonnage cases were normally placed inside one or more nested wooden coffins that were also decorated.

Exhibition History:
Permanent Ancient Art Galleries, 1994 - present

Periodic exhibition from 1911-1994; Henry Crown Gallery in 1960s - 1970s, Egyptian Gallery 1, circa 1956, Egyptian Gallery 10, circa 1935, Egyptian Gallery 9 and 10, circa 1923

Related Documents:
Cleopatra: A Multi-Media Guide to the Ancient World, The Art Institute of Chicago, 1997

The Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, 1994, Volume 20, No. 1, pp. 22-25

A Guide to the Collection, Art Institute of Chicago, 1994

Minerva, May/June 1994, Vol. 5, No. 3

The Essential Guide: Art Institute of Chicago, 1993

Allen, A Handbook of the Egyptian Collection, 1924, pp. 7, 12, 13 (ill.), 14-16, 19n, 69, and 124

Related multimedia:
3-D construction of mummy's head based upon CT data.

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